Common cylinder configurations
Common cylinder configurations include the straight or inline configuration, the more compact V configuration, and the wider but smoother flat or boxer configuration. Aircraft engines can also adopt a radial configuration, which allows more effective cooling. More unusual configurations such as the H, U, X, and W have also been used.
Multiple cylinder engines have their valve train and crankshaft configured so that pistons are at different parts of their cycle. It is desirable to have the piston's cycles uniformly spaced (this is called even firing) especially in forced induction engines; this reduces torque pulsations21 and makes inline engines with more than 3 cylinders statically balanced in its primary forces. However, some engine configurations require odd firing to achieve better balance than what is possible with even firing. For instance, a 4-stroke I2 engine has better balance when the angle between the crankpins is 180° because the pistons move in opposite directions and inertial forces partially cancel, but this gives an odd firing pattern where one cylinder fires 180° of crankshaft rotation after the other, then no cylinder fires for 540°. With an even firing pattern the pistons would move in unison and the associated forces would add.
Multiple crankshaft configurations do not necessarily need a cylinder head at all because they can instead have a piston at each end of the cylinder called an opposed piston design. Because fuel inlets and outlets are positioned at opposed ends of the cylinder, one can achieve uniflow scavenging, which, as in the four-stroke engine is efficient over a wide range of engine speeds. Thermal efficiency is improved because of a lack of cylinder heads. This design was used in the Junkers Jumo 205 diesel aircraft engine, using two crankshafts at either end of a single bank of cylinders, and most remarkably in the Napier Deltic diesel engines. These used three crankshafts to serve three banks of double-ended cylinders arranged in an equilateral triangle with the crankshafts at the corners. It was also used in single-bank locomotive engines, and is still used in marine propulsion engines and marine auxiliary generators.
What to buy a gift for fans of the automotive industry?
Buying a gift can be a problem, especially if we want to make a gift without obligation, but still quite meaty and really interesting for the recipient. What buy a fan of the automotive industry? Certainly a nice gift idea for such a person is choosing a book in this field. However, one should check if the person you want to give away no longer has such a home. Available on the market, however, is much different proposals in this regard, that will certainly find something suitable, as well as inexpensive. The book is a very good gift idea for people of all ages, and entered at the start of commemorative dedication certainly will constitute a kind of souvenir. So let's decide on the choice of books, if you are looking for an idea for a gift for a fan of the automotive industry.
Is it worth it to celebrate the day without a car?
In particular, many major urban centers there is more and more a problem with the huge traffic jams, especially during rush hours, which is why the authorities of many cities persuade motorists to give up to move your own vehicle and elected public means of transport. Although using public transport for sure we are exposed to the crowd on trams or buses, it should be induced to such exchange. True, motoring fans argue that the use of own car is much more comfortable, but we must bear in mind also that choosing the bus instead of the car contribute to fewer exhaust emissions.